The Business Model Innovation Hub aspires to become THE reference point on the discussion around business models and business model innovation.

So let us build the best reference library on the topic. Please help us collect all relevant...
  • ... books
  • ... reports (e.g. by consultancies)
  • ... research papers (e.g. peer-reviewed articles)
  • ... magazine articles (e.g. Fast Company, Wired, etc. writing on business models)
Point out the following elements for each reference you want us to add:
  • title
  • author(s)
  • type (book, report, research paper, magazine article)
  • year of publication
  • URL / website
  • how it relates to business models and business model innovation
  • main take-away
Thanks for helping make this work!

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Emerging Markets, Emerging Models

The Monitor Group

Research paper / Report

March 2009

on slideshare:

Describes 5 prevalent business models that can be applied to serve poor consumers (families on less than $1 per day)
The Change Function

Pip Coburn



Pip uses a very straightforward method to select investments that benefit from true and useful changes in technology. His approach to Value Propositions (perceived pain of adoption vs. crisis) can be useful in thinking about business model innovation.
I will export a list of the papers/books related to business models from my reference software soon... the list can be expanded quite fast :)
Well... faster than thought due to a delayed coffee-buddy :-)

(The links to the articles are mainly to the publishers and are not directly accessible. When searched through Google Scholar you usually are able to find a full PDF.)

Research Papers:
Chesbrough, H. (2007). "Business model innovation: it's not just about technology anymore." Strategy & Leadership 35(6): 12. (
To innovate the company business model, executives must first understand what it is, and then examine what paths exist for them to improve on it. This article aims to examine this issue. The article provides a practical definition of business models and offers a Business Model Framework (BMF) that illuminates the opportunities for business model innovation. The article finds that BMF sequences possible business models from very basic (and not very valuable) models to far more advanced (and very valuable) models. Using the BMF, companies can assess where their current business model stands in relation to its potential and then define appropriate next steps for the further advancement of it. An organization must give a senior manager the resources and authority to define and launch business-model experiments. The article provides a cogent model for assessing the potential for new business model innovation, a framework for carrying it out and a management plan for decision making.

Chesbrough, H. and R. S. Rosenbloom (2002). "The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation: Evidence from Xerox Corporation's technology spin-off companies." Industrial and Corporate Change 11(3): 529. (
This paper explores the role of the business model in capturing value from early stage technology. A successful business model creates a heuristic logic that connects technical potential with the realization of economic value. The business model unlocks latent value from a technology, but its logic constrains the subsequent search for new, alternative models for other technologies later on-an implicit cognitive dimension overlooked in most discourse on the topic. We explore the intellectual roots of the concept, offer a working definition and show how the Xerox Corporation arose by employing an effective business model to commercialize a technology rejected by other leading companies of the day. We then show the long shadow that this model cast upon Xerox's later management of selected spin-off companies from Xerox PARC. Xerox evaluated the technical potential of these spin-offs through its own business model, while those spin-offs that became successful did so through evolving business models that came to differ substantially from that of Xerox. The search and learning for an effective business model in failed ventures, by contrast, were quite limited. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

Pateli, A. G. and G. M. Giaglis (2004). "A research framework for analysing eBusiness models." European Journal of Information Systems 13(4): 302. (
As eBusiness is moving towards maturity, research interests shift to the investigation of opportunities for market exploitation of eBusiness technologies. As a result, the debate around business models naturally becomes more topical. However, while many researchers and practitioners are contemplating business models, there is an alarming lack of theoretical tools in the literature to structure and codify knowledge in the area. This paper draws on an extensive review of the literature to propose an analytic framework that decomposes the area of business models into eight research sub-domains. The proposed framework is then applied to organize and critically review existing research under each sub-domain as well as to define an agenda of future challenges on business model research. The framework can benefit future research by allowing researchers to better concentrate their efforts and place their contributions in an overall context, thus assisting in building a coherent body of knowledge in the challenging research domain of business models. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

Shafer, S. M., H. J. Smith, et al. (2005). "The power of business models." Business Horizons 48(3): 199-207. (
Over the past few years, "business models" have surged into the management vocabulary. But, while it has become quite fashionable to discuss business models, there is still much confusion about what business models are and how they can be used. In fact, business models can serve a positive and powerful role in corporate management. While other authors have recently offered definitions of "business model," none appear to be generally accepted. This lack of consensus may in part be attributed to interest in the concept from a wide range of disciplines, all of which have found a connection to the term. To help managers better understand business models, this paper reviews the extant literature and identifies and classifies the components of business models cited therein. Components were classified into four primary categories: strategic choices, the value network, creating value, and capturing value. To address the absence of a generally accepted definition of a business model, a new definition that integrates and synthesizes the earlier work is offered. Based on the proposed definition, business models are then contrasted with strategy. Four problems associated with business models are also discussed.

Zott, C. and R. Amit (2007). "Business Model Design and the Performance of Entrepreneurial Firms." Organization Science 18(2): 181-199. (
We focus on the design of an organization's set of boundary-spanning transactions--business model design--and ask how business model design affects the performance of entrepreneurial firms. By extending and integrating theoretical perspectives that inform the study of boundary-spanning organization design, we propose hypotheses about the impact of efficiency-centered and novelty-centered business model design on the performance of entrepreneurial firms. To test these hypotheses, we developed and analyzed a unique data set of 190 entrepreneurial firms that were publicly listed on U.S. and European stock exchanges. The empirical results show that novelty-centered business model design matters to the performance of entrepreneurial firms. Our analysis also shows that this positive relationship is remarkably stable across time, even under varying environmental regimes. Additionally, we find indications of potential diseconomies of scope in design; that is, entrepreneurs' attempts to incorporate both efficiency- and novelty-centered design elements into their business models may be counterproductive.

Working papers
Chesbrough, H. (2009). "Business Model Innovation: Opportunities and Barriers." Long Range Planning In Press, Corrected Proof. (
Companies commercialize new ideas and technologies through their business models. While companies may have extensive investments and processes for exploring new ideas and technologies, they often have little if any ability to innovate the business models through which these inputs will pass. This matters - the same idea or technology taken to market through two different business models will yield two different economic outcomes. So it makes good business sense for companies to develop the capability to innovate their business models. This paper explores the barriers to business model innovation, which previous academic research has identified as including conflicts with existing assets and business models, as well as cognition in understanding these barriers. Processes of experimentation and effectuation, and the successful leadership of organizational change must be brought to bear in order to overcome these barriers. Some examples of business model innovation are provided to underline its importance, in hopes of inspiring managers and academics to take these challenges on.

McGrath, R. G. (2009). "Business Models: A Discovery Driven Approach." Long Range Planning In Press, Corrected Proof. (
The business model concept offers strategists a fresh way to consider their options in uncertain, fast-moving and unpredictable environments. In contrast to conventional assumptions, recognizing that more new business models are both feasible and actionable than ever before is creating unprecedented opportunities for today's organizations. However, unlike conventional strategies that emphasize analysis, strategies that aim to discover and exploit new models must engage in significant experimentation and learning - a [`]discovery driven,' rather than analytical approach.

Teece, D. J. (2009). "Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation." Long Range Planning In Press, Corrected Proof. (
Whenever a business enterprise is established, it either explicitly or implicitly employs a particular business model that describes the design or architecture of the value creation, delivery, and capture mechanisms it employs. The essence of a business model is in defining the manner by which the enterprise delivers value to customers, entices customers to pay for value, and converts those payments to profit. It thus reflects management's hypothesis about what customers want, how they want it, and how the enterprise can organize to best meet those needs, get paid for doing so, and make a profit. The purpose of this article is to understand the significance of business models and explore their connections with business strategy, innovation management, and economic theory.

Johnson, M. W., C. M. Christensen, et al. (2008). "Reinventing Your Business Model." Harvard Business Review: 12. (

Linder, J. and S. Cantrell (2000). Changing Business Models: Surveying the Landscape, Accenture Institute for Strategic Change. (

Magretta, J. (2002). "Why business models matter." Harvard Business Review. (

Conference papers/proceedings
Lambert, S. (2006). A business model research schema. 19th Bled eConference eValues, Bled, Slovenia. ($File/20_Lambert.pdf)
This paper suggests a schema for business model research that has the potential to
progress the research, in a structured manner, from conceptual to theoretical. It draws
on the scientific and business research literature to identify the types of research
necessary to further knowledge and promotes the inductive-deductive model of research.
The importance of conducting empirical research to evaluate current conceptualisations
of business models and developing a theory of business models is stressed.
An important aspect of any research agenda is the creation of a general classification of
domain objects that can serve a wide range of current and future uses. Classification
literature relating to the biological, behavioural, organisational and social sciences has
been referenced in this paper in support of this claim. Existing classifications of business
models are evaluated, determining that the only classifications that have been proposed
to date are typologies and that no general taxonomy of business models currently exists.

(Unpublished) Books
Grefen, P. (2010). Mastering e-Business, Routledge Publishers. ISBN: 978-0415557856
Hamel, G. (2000). Leading the Revolution, Harvard Business School Press.
Johnson, M. W. (2010). Seizing the White Space. Boston, Harvard Business Press. ISBN: 978-1-4221-2481-9 (
Notice that a special issue of Long Range Planning (Elsevier) has a whole range of BM articles piled up (Business Models, Guest Editors: Charles Baden-Fuller, Ian MacMillan, Benoît Demil and Xavier Lecocq, tentative publication February 2010).

Another topic, maybe we can use a tool like Delicious to collect and share the more contemporary sources, I have been trying to maintain this for quite some while now,, maybe we can add a dedicated tag for the Hub?

For the more academic literature oriented Hubbers, maybe a shared Endnote library is an idea?
Three of the papers from the Long Range Planning have been included in the list I have posted above. There are some more, but I think those were the most valuable...
Mobile Service Innovation and Business Models

Bouwman, Harry; Vos, Henny; Haaker, Timber (Eds.)
2008, XIII, 327 p. 41 illus., Hardcover
ISBN: 978-3-540-79237-6

This book provides a structured method and framework for business model analysis & design, including the application in cases, targeted at mobile services but also applicable to other domains.

For more information see:
My friend Kay Plantes has a fine book and a blog on her website.

Beyond Price: Differentiate Your Company is Ways that Really Matter
Mary Kay Plantes and Robert Finfrock
Greenleaf Book Group Press

Her blog on business model innovation is found at

Getting to Plan B
John Mullins & Randy Komisar
ISBN 9781422126691
Published in 2009

Provides interesting perspectives on numerous companies and their journey through several business model iterations, before they found their current winning combination.
I just tried to compile a list of published papers that I think is a good introduction to the topic (and tried to follow a bit of a time line), with some overlap with previous entries (please see this as a confirmation of their quality instead of redundancy ;-)

Drucker, P. F. (1994). The Theory of the Business. Harvard Business Review, 72(5), 95-104.

Timmers, P. (1998). Business models for electronic markets. Electronic Markets, 8(2), 3-8.

Rappa, M. Managing the digital enterprise: Business models on the Web. from

Amit, R., & Zott, R. (2001). Value creation in E-business. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6-7), 493-520.

Barabba, V., Huber, C., Cooke, F., Pudar, N., Smith, J., & Paich, M. (2002). A Multimethod Approach for Creating New Business Models: The General Motors OnStar Project. Interfaces, 32(1), 20-34.

Magretta, J. (2002). Why Business Models Matter. Harvard Business Review, 80(5), 3-8.

Chesbrough, H., & Rosenbloom, R. S. (2002). 'The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation: Evidence from Xerox Corporation's technology spin-off companies. Industrial and Corporate Change, 11(3), 529-555.

Pateli, A. G., & Giaglis, G. M. (2004). A research framework for analysing eBusiness models. European Journal of Information Systems, 13(4), 302-314.

Morris, M., Schindehutte, M., & Allen, J. (2005). The entrepreneur's business model: toward a unified perspective. Journal of Business Research, 58(6), 726-735.

Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y., & Tucci, C. L. (2005). Clarifying business models: Origins, present, and future of the concept. Communications of AIS, 16(1).

Shafer, S. M., Smith, H. J., & Linder, J. C. (2005). The power of business models. Business Horizons, 48(3), 199-207.

Malone, T. W., Weill, P., Lai, R. K., D'Urso, V. T., Herman, G., Apel, T. G., et al. (2006). Do Some Business Models Perform Better than Others?, MIT Sloan Research Paper No. 4615-06. Available at SSRN:

Chesbrough, H. (2007). Why companies should have open business models. Sloan Management Review, 48(2), 22-28.

Teece, D. J. (2007). Explicating dynamic capabilities: The nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance. Strategic Management Journal, 28(13), 1319-1350.

Johnson, M. W., Christensen, C. M., & Kagermann, H. (2008). Reinventing your business model. Harvard Business Review, 86(12), 50-59.
Excellent - I actually should have digged into my PhD dissertation again to pull out some of the references you make ;-)


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